Beethoven, Ludwig van
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer of the Classical era. He was a significant innovator, extending the sonata, symphony, concerto, and quartet reach. He used to play viola in the Bonn symphony until he moved to Vienna in 1787. By 1802, 32 of his piano sonatas, his first two symphonies, 18 string Quartets, and his first three piano concertos were written. Unfortunately, however, the deafness, which had been noticed about five to six years before, started hitting him even harder around this time. There is a story circulating concerning his deafness, that about the end of conduction the 9th, he stood in front of the symphony not knowing how the crowd applauded their performance because he could not hear them at all. To witness the effect of his masterpiece on the audience, he had to be turned around. Late in his life, until his death, he continued to create compositions. He was buried in Vienna with honors, with over 10,000 people attending his funeral. Ludwig van Beethoven gained popularity for his piano performances and became prominent among the aristocracy because of his ability to improvise.
Beethoven wrote five cello sonatas throughout the span of his life, two of them as early as his Op. 5. These two sonatas, written when Beethoven was 25, were virtuoso concert pieces featuring the pianist, with a lighter cello section. Beethoven premiered them in Berlin in 1796 with cellist Jean-Pierre Duport, dedicating them to Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia, who was an aspiring cellist. During Beethoven's middle time, he wrote his third cello sonata in A major in Vienna. Beethoven's Triple Concerto, written in 1804, was his first piece to use advanced cello techniques. The sonata has been published several times, most notably in collections of all Beethoven cello sonatas or all of Beethoven's music for cello and piano, which contains many sets of variations.
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